By Friedrich Nietzsche
R. J. Hollingdale’s choice buildings Nietzsche’s writings in line with topic to provide the fullest attainable experience of the intensity and scope of this remarkable writer.
The literary profession of Friedrich Nietzsche (1844–1900) spanned below 20 years, yet no zone of highbrow inquiry used to be left untouched through his iconoclastic genius. The thinker who introduced the loss of life of God within the homosexual technological know-how (1882) and went directly to problem the Christian code of morality in past solid and Evil (1886), grappled with the elemental problems with the human in his personal severe autobiography, Ecce Homo (1888). so much infamous of all, probably, his thought of the triumphantly transgressive übermann (‘superman’) is constructed within the severe, but poetic phrases of hence Spake Zarathustra (1883–92). even if addressing traditional Western philosophy or breaking new floor, Nietzsche tremendously prolonged the bounds of nineteenth-century notion.
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Extra resources for A Nietzsche Reader
Thus, the painting can be devoid of signiﬁcation, but it is so only in virtue of the fact that it is not a sign: only due to the fact that it does not point to, but rather presents, an object. If this is indeed what Sartre means when he writes that a painting can be ‘altogether devoid of signiﬁcation’, then most paintings are devoid of signiﬁcation (IPPI: 190–1). Regardless of its genre, a painting has been intentionally constructed in such a manner as to motivate us to take up an imagining attitude, and not to direct our perceptual attention to something else.
These arguments begin with a phenomenologically rigorous description of various features of consciousness, like its abilities to imagine (IPPI: 179), raise indeterminate 31 MATTHEW C. ESHLEMAN questions (B&N: 47), form negative judgements (B&N: 51), and deceive itself (B&N: 69), and then work in reverse (regressively) to derive the necessary conditions required by the truth of those descriptions. In three important instances Sartre oﬀers variations of this transcendental argument, which concludes that consciousness cannot be wholly determined (by being in the mode of in-itself ) and consequently cannot be necessitated by any factual states of aﬀairs.
He argues, on the one hand, that if human experience was strictly causally determined, by which he means that if the sum set of material facts (including the laws of nature) were such that, given those facts, one and only one future were possible, then humans could not be free. Neither would they be able to imagine, ask questions, give reasons, or value things. Sartre, however, also recognizes that at least certain forms of indeterminism render actions random and hence, must also be avoided (B&N: 422–3, 474).