A Vision for the National Weather Service: Road Map for the by National Research Council, National Weather Service,

By National Research Council, National Weather Service, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems, National Weather Service Modernization Committee, Panel on the Road Map for the Future

Panel at the street Map for the longer term, nationwide climate provider Modernization Committee, fee on Engineering and Technical platforms, department on Engineering and actual Sciences, nationwide climate provider, nationwide study Council

In this examine, the committee explores methods the nationwide climate carrier (NWS) can make the most of carrying on with advances in technological know-how and expertise to fulfill the demanding situations of the longer term. The predictions are occupied with the objective 12 months 2025. simply because particular predictions concerning the nation of technology and know-how or the NWS greater than 25 years sooner or later aren't completely exact, the objective of this document is to spot and spotlight traits which are probably to steer swap. The Panel at the street Map for the long run nationwide climate provider built an confident imaginative and prescient for 2025 in accordance with advances in technological know-how and know-how.

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Others include wind profilers that are used to measure winds up to the tropopause, the Terminal Doppler Weather Radar for detecting microbursts and low-level wind shears in airport terminal areas, and the airport surveillance radar (ASR-9) for both air traffic control and limited weather surveillance. Various research radars are being used for Doppler observations, polarimetric measurements of precipitation, and cloud detection—the latter typically at very high frequencies of 35 to 94 GHz. Many television stations also operate their own Doppler weather radars.

Figure 2-3 shows the increase in skill at NCEP in forecasting the 500-mb geopotential height anomalies over the Northern Hemisphere in winter. An anomaly correlation of 5 The skill scores are based on the so-called S1 score, which measures the accuracy or skill in predicting the horizontal gradient of a scalar field, such as geopotential height of a constant pressure surface or sea-level pressure (Teweles and Wobus, 1954). Because of the strong relationship in middle and high latitudes between the pressure gradient and large-scale (or synoptic-scale) wind flow, the S1 score for geopotential height and sealevel pressure is also a good measure of skill in predicting the synopticscale winds.

For example, the rawinsonde has been greatly improved, and winds can now be measured with the use of sondes equipped with GPS receivers, enabling more accurate tracking of the sonde. High-flying aircraft have dropped GPS dropsondes into hurricanes to provide soundings for incorporation into NWP models. , 1996; Aberson and Franklin, in press). Many advances in measurement technology have come from fields outside the atmospheric and hydrologic sciences. The miniaturization of electronics, the digitization of communication systems, advances in computational capabilities, and the mass production of high resolution color monitors to display graphics and text have all improved observing systems and added to their value in the forecast process.

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