Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology. Hammanr

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CS and bAS enzymes have been fully purified from seedlings of pea [27, 30, 31] and also from microsomes of cell suspension cultures of another plant species, Rabdosia japonica [32]. The purified pea CS and bAS enzymes were identified as 55-kDa and 35-kDa proteins, respectively [27, 30, 31]. Similarly CS and bAS enzymes purified from R. japonica were also found to be distinct protein species with molecular masses of 54 kDa and 28 kDa, respectively [32]. The two classes of OSC also show differences in sensitivity to inhibitors and detergents [27, 32].

Trp 259 of bAS is believed to control b-amyrin formation through stablization of the oleanyl cation, while the absence of cation stabilization with Leu in the equivalent position in LuS may result in termination of the reaction at the lupenyl cation stage. Mutation of a neighbouring tyrosine residue (Tyr261) that is conserved in all OSCs that produce pentacyclic triterpenoids to histidine, the corresponding residue in OSCs that produce tetracyclic carbon skeletons, resulted in synthesis of dammarenetype triterpenoids.

Cloning of 2,3-Oxidosqualene Cyclases . . . . . OSCs Required for Sterol Biosynthesis . . . . . . Triterpenoid Cyclases . . . . . . . . . . OSC Gene Families . . . . . . . . . . . The Relationship Between Structure and Function . . Conserved Features . . . . . . . . . . . Processing and Post-Translational Modifications . . . Product Determination . . . . . . . . . . Manipulation of Flux Through the Sterol and Triterpenoid Biosynthetic Pathways .

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