By Hans-Christian Leiper Kirsch, Thomas L Kane, Wolf Leslau
This choice of essays has reasons: first to offer the complex scholar of Amharic a pattern of the Amharic writing kind and secondly to supply info on Ethiopia's cultural heritage. The texts have been written by means of numerous Ethiopian college scholars a few forty years in the past on matters with which they have been so much widespread reminiscent of naming, christening, marriage ceremony, burial rite, food and drinks, the way of donning outfits, condominium development in Amhara state, day-by-day paintings of an Ethiopian girl, landholding disputes, good looks, service provider, mercato, kingdom industry, artisans, elderhood, clergymen, dabtara, monkhood, divination, Christmas, Easter, Addis Ababa, town of Gondar, Harar urban and so forth. even if a while has handed because the assortment was once compiled the texts show an outstanding photo of Ethiopian tradition. each one Amharic textual content is given an English translation at the contrary facet. The booklet is finished by means of an Amharic-English Dictionary of approximately ninety pages and an index of English phrases and Amharic lexemes.
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Asmah 1987: 165). Asmah's discussion of 'the second most important language' (second in importance in the education system, and second in importance to Bahasa Malaysia), highlights other educational problems in terms of resources: shortage of trained English language teachers, and model users of English in Malaysia. A crucial argument in Asmah's proposed typology of languages in Malaysia (primary, secondary, and foreign languages) is that English is a 'second primary language'. Thus, a language planning programme of a particular country does not have to have to waste time on determining whether the country is going ESL or EFL.
All university education is followed in a foreign country, implying that language proficiency must be high enough to meet foreign university standards. Caveats: The system works because of consensus support. All three language are used in school and the wider environment (shops, media, business, administration). The small size of the country allows for easy access to France, Germany, Belgium, where the L2 and L3 prevail. All three languages are immediately pertinent. For details, see Lebrun & Baetens Beardsmore (1993).
It is certainly the first school language for the majority. Moreover, increasing numbers of young Singaporeans are shifting to English for more functions (Pakir 1991a), and English is fast becoming something between a first and a second language for at least one quarter of its population. As a result, the traditional distinction between ESL and EFL teaching may not hold, and those methods developed for such teaching cannot be applied uniformly for different sections of the population. The use of English in Chinese, Malay and Indian households has increased in one decade.